ANTENAS ASESINAS

ANTENAS ASESINAS
ANTENAS ASESINAS

miércoles, 20 de abril de 2011

NUEVA INVESTIGACION:PROYECTO REFLEX

Proyecto Europeo Reflex

El proyecto REFLEX ha sido financiado por la Unión Europea (2.059.450 euros) en el marco de la acción “Medio Ambiente y Salud” y en su desarrollo (febrero de 2000-mayo de 2004) han participado doce centros de investigación europeos de amplio prestigio en la temática de los efectos de los campos electromagnéticos sobre la salud de países como Alemania, Austria, España, Finlandia, Italia, Francia y Suiza.

REFLEX constata que los EMF-ELF (1) producen efectos genotóxicos en cultivos celulares primarios de fibroblastos humanos y otros tipos de células., (2) generan roturas en el DNA a niveles inferiores a 35 microtestlas, (3) existe una elevada correlación positiva entre intensidad y tiempo de exposición con el incremento de ambos efectos destacados, (4) ambos efectos se observaron cuando las células fueron expuestas a EMF-ELF intermitentes; (5) Los efectos sobre los fibroblastos se incrementaron con la edad y en presencia de defectos de los mecanismos de reparación genética, (6) Los efectos son diferentes en otros tipos de células examinadas, en particular, los linfocitos de donantes adultos no ofrecen respuesta a la exposición; (7) También se observaron aberraciones cromosómicas tras la exposición de fibroblastos humanos a EMF-ELF
Project Progress Summary
Section 1: PROJECT IDENTIFICATION NOT CONFIDENTIAL
Title of the project: Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards from Low Energy
Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods
Acronym of the project: REFLEX
Type of contract: Shared Cost RTD                                                   Total project cost (in euro)
3.149.621 .
Contract number Duration (in months) EU contribution (in euro)
QLK4-CT-1999-01574  52 Months 2.059.450 .
Commencement date
1 February 2000
Period covered by the progress report
1 February 2000  31 May 2004
PROJECT COORDINATOR
Name
Prof. Dr. Franz Adlkofer
Title
Executive Director
Address
Pettenkoferstr. 33
D-80336 M.nchen
Telephone
+49 89 5309880
Telefax
+49 89 53098829
E-mail address
prof.adlkofer@verum-foundation.de
Key words (5 maximum - Please include specific keywords that best describe the project.).
Electromagnetism, Bioeffects, Risk to Health
World wide web address (the project.s www address )   ---
List of participants Provide  all  partners.  details  including  their  legal  status  in  the  contract  i.e.,  contractor,  assistant  contractor  (to
which contractor?)
1.  Prof. Dr. Franz Adlkofer, VERUM - Stiftung f.r Verhalten und Umwelt, Pettenkoferstrasse 33, D-80336 M.nchen, Germany,
Tel: +49 89 5309880 / Fax: +49 89 53098829 / E-mail: prof.adlkofer@verum-foundation.de (contractor)
2.  Prof. Dr. Rudolf Tauber, Institut f.r Klinische Chemie, Universit.tsklinikum Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 
D-12200 Berlin, Germany, Tel: +49 30 84452555 / Fax: +49 30 84554152 / E-mail: Tauber@ukbf.fu-berlin.de (contractor)
3.  Prof. Dr. Hugo W. R.diger, Abteilung f.r Arbeitsmedizin, Universit.tsklinik f.r Innere Medizin IV, W.hringer G.rtel 18-20, 
A-1090 Wien, Austria, Tel: +43 1 404004701 / Fax: +43 1 4088011 / E-mail: hugo.ruediger@akh-wien.ac.at  (contractor)
4.  Dr. Anna M. Wobus, Institut f.r Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung, Corrensstrasse 3, D-06446  Gatersleben,
Germany, Tel: +49 39482 5256 / Fax: +49 39482 5481 / E-mail: wobusam@ipk-gatersleben.de (contractor)
5.  Dr. Angeles Trillo, Insalud, Ramon y Cajal Hospital, Carretera Colmenar km.9, E-28034 Madrid, Spain,
Tel: +34 91 3368699 / Fax: +34 91 3368171 / E-mail: angeles.trillo@hrc.es (contractor)
6.  Prof. Dr. Dariusz Leszczynski, Radiobiology, STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Laippatie 4, FIN-0881 Helsinki,
Finland, Tel: +358 9 75988694 / Fax: +358 9 75988556 / E-mail: dariusz.leszczynski@stuk.fi (contractor)
7.  Prof. Dr. Hans-Albert Kolb, Institut f.r Biophysik, Universit.t Hannover, Herrenh.user Strasse 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany,
Tel: +49 511 7622612 / Fax: +49 511 7623830 / E-mail: kolb@mbox.biophysik.uni-hannover.de (contractor)
8.  Prof. Dr. Ferdinando Bersani, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy
Tel: +39 (0)51 2095122 / Fax: +39 (0)51 2095050 / E-mail: bersani@gpxbof.df.unibo.it (contractor)
9.  Dr. Isabelle Lagroye, Laboratoire PIOM, ENSCPB, 16 Av. Pey Berland, F-33607 Pessac Cedex, France, 
Tel: +33 (0)5 40002821 / Fax: +33-(0)5 40006631 / E-mail: i.lagroye@enscpb.fr (contractor)
10.  Prof. Dr. Niels Kuster, Institut f.r Integrierte Systeme, ETH Zentrum, Gloriastrasse 37/39, CH-8092 Z.rich, Switzerland
Tel: +41 1 632 2737 / Fax: +41 1 632 1057 / E-mail: niels.kuster@ifh.ee.ethz.ch (contractor)
11.  Prof. Dr. Francesco Clementi, Cattedra di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Vanvitelli 32, I-20129 Milano, Italy
Tel: +39 (0)2 50316962 / Fax: +39 (0)2 7490574 / E-mail: f.clementi@in.cnr.it (contractor)
12.  Dr. Christian Maercker, Ressourcenzentrum f.r Genomforschung GmbH (RZPD), TP3 EG, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 
D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Tel: +49 6221 424741 / Fax: +49 6221 424704 / E-mail: c.maercker@dkfz.de
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Section 2: Project Progress Report NOT CONFIDENTIAL
Objectives: Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in relation to health is a controversial topic throughout
the industrial world. So far epidemiological and animal studies have generated conflicting data and thus
uncertainty regarding possible adverse health effects. This situation has triggered controversies in
communities especially in Europe with its high density of population and industry and the omnipresence of
EMF in infrastructures and consumer products. These controversies are affecting the siting of facilities,
leading people to relocate, schools to close or power lines to be re-sited, all at great expense. The causality
between EMF exposure and disease can never be regarded as proven without knowledge and understanding
of the basic mechanisms possibly triggered by EMF. To search for those basic mechanisms powerful
technologies developed in toxicology and molecular biology were to be employed in the REFLEX project to
investigate cellular and sub-cellular responses of living cells exposed to EMF in vitro.
Results and Milestones: The strengths of REFLEX are based firstly on the adoption of a common
technological platform for ELF-EMF and RF-EMF exposures that allow the replication of positive findings
between the collaborating partners. Secondly, on the adoption of the post-genomic technologies (DNA micro-
arrays and proteomics) that enables very large numbers of potential cellular effects to be examined
simultaneously without prejudice as to mechanisms. The data obtained in the course of the REFLEX project
showed that ELF-EMF had genotoxic effects on primary cell cultures of human fibroblasts and on other cell
lines. These results were obtained in two laboratories and confirmed in two additional laboratories outside the
REFLEX project, while no such effects could be observed in a further laboratory. ELF-EMF generated DNA
strand breaks at a significant level at a flux density as low as 35 .T. There was a strong positive correlation
between both the intensity and duration of exposure to ELF-EMF and the increase in single and double strand
DNA breaks and micronuclei frequencies. Surprisingly this genotoxic effect was only observed when cells
were exposed to intermittent ELF-EMF, but not to continuous exposure. Responsiveness of fibroblast to ELF-
EMF increased with the age of the donor and in the presence of specific genetic repair defects. The effect
also differed among the other types of cells examined. In particular, lymphocytes from adult donors were not
responsive. Chromosomal aberrations were also observed after ELF-EMF exposure of human fibroblasts. The
following observations were made in different REFLEX laboratories: 1) ELF-EMF at a flux density of about 2
mT upregulated the expression of early genes, such as p21, c-jun and egr-1, in p53-deficient mouse
embryonic stem cells, but not in healthy wildtype cells; 2) ELF-EMF (0.1 mT) increased the proliferation rate of
neuroblastoma cells; and 3) ELF-EMF (0.8 mT) enhanced the differentiation of mouse stem cells into
cardiomyocytes. However, no clear-cut and unequivocal effects of ELF-EMF on DNA synthesis, cell cycle, cell
differentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis were found. 
With respect to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF), data showed that RF-EMF produced
genotoxic effects in fibroblasts, granulosa cells and HL60 cells. Cells responded to RF-EMF exposure
between SAR level 0.3 and 2 W/kg with a significant increase in single and double strand DNA breaks and in
micronuclei frequency. Chromosomal aberrations in fibroblasts were observed after RF-EMF exposure. RF-
EMF at a SAR of 1.5 W/kg downregulated the expression of neuronal genes in neuronal precursor cells and
upregulated the expression of early genes in p53-deficient embryonic stem cells, but not in wildtype cells.
Proteomic analyses on human endothelial cell lines showed that exposure to RF-EMF changed the
expression and phosphorylation of numerous, largely unidentified proteins. Among these proteins is the heat
shock protein hsp27, a marker for cellular stress responses. There was no evidence that RF-EMF affected
processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis or immune cell functionality.
For both ELF-EMF and RF-EMF, the results of the whole genome cDNA micro-array and proteomic analyses
indicated that EMF may activate several groups of genes that play a role in cell division, cell proliferation and cell
differentiation. At present the biological relevance of these findings can not be assessed. 
Benefits and Beneficiaries: The REFLEX data have made a substantial addition to the data base relating to
genotoxic and phenotypic effects of both ELF-EMF and RF-EMF on in vitro cellular systems. The data neither
preclude nor confirm a health risk due to EMF exposure nor was the project designed for this purpose. Its
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value lies in providing new data that will enable mechanisms of EMF effects to be studied more effectively
than in the past. Furthermore, the REFLEX data provide new information that will be used for risk evaluation
by WHO, IARC and ICNIRP.
Future Actions: The REFLEX project has created novel results. From a scientific point of view, it has to be
stated very clearly that the REFLEX data do not prove a causal link between EMF exposure and any adverse
health  effects.  The  genotoxic  and  phenotypic  effects, which  have  been  reported  within  REFLEX,  clearly
require further studies. These studies should include extensive external replications of the key observations
reported,  initially  using  the  same  technological  platform.  A  further  objective  should  be  the  extension  of
REFLEX investigations  to  appropriate  animal  models  (e.g.  genetically  modified  mice)  and human volunteer
studies.
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